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Memory encryption can overcome compromised isolation


Monday, June 10, 2024

As systems-on-chips (SoCs) become increasingly complex, security functions must grow accordingly to protect the semiconductor devices themselves and the sensitive information residing on or passing through them. While a Root of Trust security solution built into the SoCs can protect the chip and data resident therein (data at rest), many other threats exist which target interception, theft or tampering with the valuable information in off-chip memory (data in use).

Many isolation technologies exist for memory protection, however, with the discovery of the Meltdown and Spectre vulnerabilities in 2018, and attacks like row hammer targeting DRAM, security architects realize there are practical threats that can bypass these isolation technologies.

One of the techniques to prevent data being accessed across different guests/domains/zones/realms is memory encryption. With memory encryption in place, even if any of the isolation techniques have been compromised, the data being accessed is still protected by cryptography. To ensure the confidentiality of data, each user has their own protected key. Memory encryption can also prevent physical attacks like hardware bus probing on the DRAM bus interface. It can also prevent tampering with control plane information like the MPU/MMU control bits in DRAM and prevent the unauthorized movement of protected data within the DRAM.

Memory encryption technology must ensure confidentiality of the data. If a “lightweight” algorithm is used, there are no guarantees the data will be protected from mathematic cryptanalysts given that the amount of data used in memory encryption is typically huge. Well known, proven algorithms are either the NIST approved AES or OSCAA approved SM4 algorithms.

The recommended key length is also an important aspect defining the security strength. AES offers 128, 192 or 256-bit security, and SM4 offers 128-bit security. Advanced memory encryption technologies also involve integrity and protocol level anti-replay techniques for high-end use-cases. Proven hash algorithms like SHA-2, SHA-3, SM3 or (AES-)GHASH can be used for integrity protection purposes.

Once one or more of the cipher algorithms are selected, the choice of secure modes of operation must be made. Block Cipher algorithms need to be used in certain specific modes to encrypt bulk data larger than a single block of just 128 bits.

XTS mode, which stands for “XEX (Xor-Encrypt-Xor) with tweak and CTS (Cipher Text Stealing)” mode has been widely adopted for disk encryption. CTS is a clever technique which ensures the number of bytes in the encrypted payload is the same as the number of bytes in the plaintext payload. This is particularly important in storage to ensure the encrypted payload can fit in the same location as would the unencrypted version.

XTS/XEX uses two keys, one key for block encryption, and another key to process a “tweak.” The tweak ensures every block of memory is encrypted differently. Any changes in the plaintext result in a complete change of the ciphertext, preventing an attacker from obtaining any information about the plaintext.

While memory encryption is a critical aspect of security, there are many challenges to designing and implementing a secure memory encryption solution. Rambus is a leading provider of both memory and security technologies and understands the challenges from both the memory and security viewpoints. Rambus provides state-of-the-art Inline Memory Encryption (IME) IP that enables chip designers to build high-performance, secure, and scalable memory encryption solutions.

By: DocMemory
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